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Sejarah Taklid dalam Mazhab Syiah
Taklid dalam mazhab Syiah di mulai sejak masa para imam. Mereka merujukkan para pengikut mereka kepada para periwayat haditsatau sahabat-sahabat dekat mereka seperti Zurarah bin A’yyan, Yunus bin Abdurrahman, Aban bin Taghlib, Zakaria bin Adam, Muhammad bin Muslim serta Abu Bashir dan terkadang mendorong para sahabat untuk hadir di mesjid-mesjid dan di tempat-tempat umum guna memberikan fatwa serta membimbing umat.
Munculnya taklid di masa para imam serta anjuran mereka kepada perkara ini lantaran adanya jarak yang jauh di antara kota-kota, tidak tersedianya pelbagai fasiliti yang di perlukan masyarakat untuk melakukan perjalanan(safar) yang berakibat pada sulitnya menjangkau imam, faktor penyebab takiyah pada kebanyakan kes dan pada akhirnya munculnya pelbagai kesulitan individual serta tekanan dan kesulitan bagi para imam ketika masyarakat merujuk langsung kepada mereka. Pada masa itu, para ulama yang mengeluarkan fatwa(mufti) tidak begitu sulit menyimpulkan atau mengetahui kewajiban-kewajiban syar’i masyarakat yang merujuk di karenakan kedekatan dengan zaman risalah serta tidak rumitnya metode peyimpulan(istinbath) hukum-hukum syariat.
Pada zaman keghaiban kecil(gaibah sugra) keperluan taklid dalam perkara hukum syar’i semakin terasa. Tauqi’(semacam surat atau perintah atau jawaban-jawaban soal yang telah di sahkan atau di tanda tangani) Imam Mahdi as., menyebut para fukaha yang memenuhi syarat-syarat khusus sebagai rujukan(marja) dalam mengetahui hukum-hukum pada subjek-subjek baru.
Dalam zaman keghaiban besar(gaibah kubra), permasalahan taklid pun senantiasa mengemuka di kalangan Syiah, meskipun terdapat perbedaan di antara kalangan Ushuliyyun dan Akhbariyyun mengenai kaidah-kaidah dan syarat-syaratnya.
Pemaparan Hukum-hukum Taklid dalam Risalah-risalah Amaliyah
Latar belakang pembahasan tentang ijtihad dan taklid kembali pada masa kodifikasi ilmu ushul fikih. Subjek bahasan ini telah di teliti dalam kitab-kitab ushul fiqh imamiyah, sejak penulisan kitab Azzari’ah ila Ushulissyari’ah(di tulis oleh Sayyid Murtadha, wf.436) hingga masa kini. Dalam kitab-kitab fikih Istidlal(fikih argumentatif) terkadang sebagian pokok-pokok bahasan yang berkaitan dengan taklid, di jelaskan di sela-sela pembahasan syarat-syarat faqih jami al-syaraith, pada bab amar ma’ruf dan nahi munkar serta bab pengadilan(qadha) .
Dari abad kesepuluh dan sesudahnya, karya-karya tersendiri tentang ini dengan judul Al-Ijtihad wa Al-Taqlid atau dengan judul-judul lainnya telah di tulis dan sesudah Syaikh Anshari cara ini menjadi umum di mana hukum taklid di paparkan di permulaan risalah-risalah amaliyah. Sekarang pun bahasan pertama kali yang di kemukakan di dalam kitab-kitab risalah amaliyah adalah hukum taklid serta syarat-syarat marja taklid.
Sejak masa di tulisnya kitab Al-Urwah Al-Wusqa, karya Sayyid Kazim Thabathabai Yazdi(wf.1337), pembahasan ijtihad dan taklid pun di ketengahkan di permulaan kitab-kitab fikih.15. 
Hukum Taklid dalam Fiqih Syiah
Pandangan populer fuqaha syiah adalah wajib takhyiri, yaitu kemestian(wajib) salah satu di antara tiga perkara ijtihad, ikhtiyat atau taklid bagi mukallif; dengan makna ini bahwa seseorang guna mengetahui kewajibannya tentang hukum-hukum fiqih, entah Ia sendiri harus seorang mujtahid dan menarik kesimpulan(istinbath) hukum dari sumber-sumber fiqih, atau jika bukan mujtahid beramal ikhtiyat, dan atau merujuk kepada seorang mujtahid yang telah memenuhi segala syarat(jami syaraith) serta beramal berdasarkan pandangannya.
History of Taqlid in Shi’a
In Shi’a, Taqlid started from the time of the Infallible Imams (a). They referred their followers to the narrators of hadiths or their close companions such as Zurara b. A’yan,Yunus b. ‘Abd al-Rahman, Aban b. Taghlib, Zakariyya b. Adam, Muhammad b. Muslim and Abu Basir. Sometimes, Imams (a) encouraged their companions to go to mosquesand public places for guiding people, answering their questions and issuing fatwas. Difficulty of having access to Imam, because of the long distance between the cities and lack of proper facilities for traveling, Taqiyya in most of the cases and causing difficulties for Imams resulted in emergence of Taqlid in their time. On that time, deducing religious rulings from the sources were not difficult for Imams’ companions as they were close to the time of the Prophet (s) and the method of deduction was not complicated. During the Minor Occultation, the need to Taqlid arose more. Therefore, Imam al-Mahdi (a), in his famous Tawqi’, introduced narrators of hadiths (Faqihs) with certain qualifications as references for Shi’a. The topic of Taqlid continued to exist among Shi’a during Major Occultation as well; although there were some disagreement between Usulis and Akhbaris in its conditions and rules.
Taqlid’s Rulings in Islamic Practical Laws
Apparently, studies about Ijtihad and Taqlid began from the time of emergence of Usul al-Fiqh (Principles of Jurisprudence). This topic has been discussed in early books of Usul al-Fiqh such as al-Dhari'a ila usul al-Shari'a (written by Sayyid al-Murtada, d.436) and continued to contemporary books. Moreover, in the works on demonstrative jurisprudence, issues about Taqlid and the qualifications of Marja’ al-Taqlid were sometimes discussed in chapters such as al-Amr bi al-Ma’ruf wa al-Nahy ‘an al-Munkar (enjoining the good and forbidding the evil) and Qada’ (judgment). From the 10th/16th century, independent works about this topic were written. After al-Shaykh al-Ansari it became common for the books of Islamic Practical Laws (Tawdih al-Masa’il) to start with a chapter about rulings of Taqlid. Likewise, the topic of Ijtihad and Taqlid was discussed at the beginning of jurisprudential books after the book “al-‘Urwat al-wuthqa” written by Sayyid Muhammad Kazim Tabataba’i Yazdi (d. 1918).
In Shi’a Jurisprudence
According to majority of Shi'a faqihs (jurists) Taqlid is Wajib al-Takhyiri (Elective Compulsion) which means either Taqlid or Ijtihad or Ihtiyat (caution) is compulsory (Wajib) for a Muslim, i.e. for gaining the Islamic rulings one must be even Mujtahid, who can deduce the rulings from jurisprudential sources, or acts according to caution or refer to a qualified Mujtahid and acts according to his fatwas.
Shi'a faqihs believe that following a Mujtahid in Practical rulings is permissible in Islam. For proving the permissibility and even compulsion of Taqlid they have adduced the four sources of Shi’a jurisprudence - namely Qur'an, Hadith, ‘Aql (reason) and Ijma’ (consensus).
Every Muslim knew that if he commit a Haram (forbidden acts in Islam) or leaves a Wajib (compulsory acts in Islam) he will be punished in the Hereafter; so he must have an excuse for what he does in this world that saves him from the punishment. This immunity is gained through Ijtihad or Ihtiyat or Taqlid. So if he is not a Mujtahid nor acts according to caution; he must choose Taqlid.
Qur'an talked about two kinds of Taqlid (following): liked and disliked. In various verses of Qur’an following the leaders of polytheism, the arrogant and the ancestors based on bias and ignorance were disliked. In addition, it counted the slavish imitation in Usul al-Din (Principle of Religion) as an act of ignorance and against reasoning. In the verse 31st of Sura al-Tawba, Qur’an criticized the Jews who blindly follow their Rabbis. Exegetes of Qur’an and Faqihs mentioned other verses in relation with permissible and liked Taqlid. For instance, they said the 122nd verse of Sura al-Tawba, which denote the compulsion of traveling for learning the teachings of the religion and then letting the other Muslims knew them, is one of the Qur’anic evidences for Taqlid. Moreover, exegetes of Qur’an perceived the necessity of Taqlid and referring to scholars and Mujtahids from the 43rd verse of Sura al-Nahl and the 7th verse of Sura al-Anbiya’. ‘Allama Tabataba’i believed that the 43rd verse of Sura al-Nahl mentions a general and rational principle which is referring to experts in every field.
- 1. A hadith narrated from Imam al-Hasan al-‘Askari (a) in which a derivative of the word “Taqlid” is used. It reads, “… and whoever from Faqihs is preserving his soul, protecting his faith, opposing his whims, obeying his master; the ordinary people must follow him.” However, some scholars mentioned that some of the narrators of this hadith are not reliable.
- 2. Hadiths in which Shi’a infallible Imams (a) referred Shi’a to the narrators of hadiths such as Imam al-Mahdi’s Tawqi’.
- 3. Hadiths in which Shi’a infallible Imams (a) referred Shi’a to some certain narrators by mentioning their names.
- 4. Hadiths in which Shi’a infallible Imams (a) encouraged their companions to issue fatwas or approved their fatwas.
- 5. Hadiths in which issuing fatwa without proper knowledge or based on Ra’y (personal opinion) or Qiyas (deductive analogy) was forbidden which shows issuing fatwa based on reliable religious source is permissible.
- 6. Hadiths which imply Shi’a infallible Imams (a) approved following a person who issues fatwas based on accepted conditions and rules.
Ijma’ or “consensus of Faqihs” is another proof of permissibility of Taqlid in practical rulings of Islam. All Shi’a Faqihs believe that a Muslim, even who do not know anything about practical laws of Islam, can take all the [[Islamic practical rulings from a Mujtahid and act according to his fatwas.
Acts or Worship without Taqlid
Taqlid is not the condition of validity of an act; rather the method for finding the correct way of performing that act. Therefore, if the deeds of someone, who is not aMujtahid nor follows a Mujtahid (or has chosen his Marja’ based on wrong criteria) are coincidentally accordant to the fatwas of a qualified Marja’, his acts of worships are valid. Thus, for knowing whether his acts were valid in past or not, he must choose an alive qualified Marja’ according to accepted criteria and check the consonance of his acts with the Marja’’s fatwas. And if his acts does not match the fatwas of the Marja’ whom he has chosen, he must asked his Marja’ about his duty toward his past actions.
Taqlid in Furu’ al-Din is prohibited for a Mujtahid. Likewise, Taqlid is prohibited for non-Mujtahids in following cases: 1- Taqlid is prohibited for a person to whom the rulings are axiomatically clear (e.g. he has heard it from the Prophet (s)); because according to the reason, the subject of Taqlid is ignorance or not having knowledge, so when someone is certain about a ruling he is not allowed to follow others.
2- Taqlid is prohibited in topics that one has to have absolute faith about them, such as Usul al-Din; because Taqlid does not lead to absolute certainty. Although sometimes referring to a knowledgeable person may lead to certainty, like referring to the Prophet (s) for appointing the Imam (a), but this is not terminological Taqlid. Sunnis, also, do not allow Taqlid in Theology, as in this kind of issues thinking and finding the truth is desirable and Taqlid is undesirable. The 22th verse of Sura al-Zukhruf disliked following ancestors without any reason. Furthermore, the Prophet (s) told us to think about the signs of God.
Taqlid among Sunni
The topic of Taqlid had many ups and downs among Sunnis. During a period of time several jurisprudential schools appeared among Sunnis which led to disputes and conflicts. Thus, the idea of “closure of the gate of Ijtihad” and limitation of jurisprudential schools were introduced. Eventually in the 7th/13th century, only four jurisprudential school were announced official and following the other ones was forbidden. However, some early Sunni scholars, such as Abu al-Futuh al-Shahristani (d. 1153) and Abu Ishaq al-Shatibi (d. 1388) opposed the idea of “closure of the gate of Ijtihad” and demanded the opening of it. In recent centuries some Sunni scholars including those of al-Azhar refuted the limitation of jurisprudential schools in four arguing that all Muslims unanimously agree that following any of the Companions of the Prophet (s) was permissible in the early period of Islam; therefore, the process of Ijtihad has become prevalent among Sunnis again.
- The material for this article is mainly taken from in Farsi WikiShia.
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